Allopurinol Uses, Dose, Side Effects, and Interactions

Allopurinol is a prescription medication used to treat gout and certain types of kidney stones. It can also be used to prevent increased uric acid levels in patients receiving chemotherapy. In this article we discuss the uses, mechanisms of actions, dose, side effects, and interactions of allopurinol.

What is Allopurinol? 

Allopurinol is a prescription medication used to treat gout and certain types of kidney stones. It can also be used to prevent increased uric acid levels in patients receiving chemotherapy. Allopurinol belongs to a class of drugs called xanthine oxidase inhibitors. It is available as the brand name drugs Zyloprim and Lopurin. 

Allopurinol Mechanism of Action 

Allopurinol works to block the production of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme that helps make uric acid. High levels of uric acid may contribute to gout attacks and kidney stones. 

Allopurinol Uses

Allopurinol is used to treat gout and prevent high uric acid levels in the blood. It can also be used to prevent or lower high uric acid levels in patients receiving chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can increase uric acid when cancer cells release it as they die. In patients with kidney stones, allopurinol can also help to lower uric acid levels. 

Allopurinol oral tablet is used to treat gout, elevated serum uric acid levels, and kidney stones. 

Allopurinol Brand Name 

Allopurinol is available as an oral tablet as both a brand name drug and generic drug. The brand names of allopurinol include Zyloprim and Lopurin. 

Allopurinol Dose 

Allopurinol is available as an oral tablet. It is important to take allopurinol under the supervision of a medical professional. Your dosage of allopurinol may depend on a number of factors including:

  • Your age
  • Your weight
  • Strength of dosage
  • Time between doses
  • How severe your condition is 

Allopurinol Dosage for Gout

Adults: At first, 100mg to 300mg per day taken once or twice a day. Dosage may increase based on doctor recommendation. Dosage should not exceed 800mg per day. 

Dosage for High Uric Acid Levels

Adults and Children Ages 11 and Older: 600mg to 800mg per day.

Children 6 to 10: 300 mg per day. 

Children younger than 6: Use and dosage must be determined by a doctor. 

Dosage for Kidney Stones

Adults: 200mg to 300mg per day. Dosage should not exceed 800mg per day. 

Children: Use and dosage must be determined by a doctor. 

Side Effects of Allopurinol 

Allopurinol does have associated side effects. Some side effects are more common and serious than others. 

Common Side Effects

Common side effects of allopurinol include:

  • Ankle or knee joint pain
  • Joint stiffness
  • Joint swelling
  • Rash
  • Sore throat
  • Sweating
  • Stomach pain

If these side effects are mild, they may disappear within a few days. If you have stopped taking your medication and the effects are still present, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.

Serious Side Effects

Some side effects of allopurinol are more serious. If you are experiencing any of the following serious side effects, contact your doctor or pharmacist immediately. Call 911 if you think your symptoms are life threatening.

  • Itchy hives
  • Skin rash
  • Scaly skin
  • Fever 
  • Chills
  • Tiredness
  • Lack of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Pain in the upper abdominal area
  • Changes in liver function test results
  • Jaundice

Disclaimer: Here at Manifest Pharmacy, our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information.  However, because drugs affect each person differently, we cannot guarantee that this information includes all possible side effects. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always discuss possible side effects with a healthcare professional who  knows your medical history. 

Allopurinol Interactions

In rare cases, allopurinol does interact with certain medications. Do not take allopurinol in conjunction with any of the following medications:

  • Captopril
  • Enalapril
  • Azathioprine
  • Benazepril
  • Warfarin
  • Theophylline
  • Protamine
  • Dyphylline
  • Didanosine 

Allopurinol and Alcohol 

Drinking alcohol while taking allopurinol is generally safe, but may trigger a gout attack in rare cases. Consuming alcohol increases the level of uric acid in your blood which can trigger an attack of gout. Consult a healthcare professional if you plan to consume alcohol while taking allopurinol. 

Allopurinol Summary

Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor used to treat gout and kidney stones, and lower levels of uric acid in the blood. It is available as the brand name drugs Zylorpim and Lopurin. 

Allopurinol works to block the production of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme that helps make uric acid. In some cases, it can be used to reduce uric acid levels in patients receiving chemotherapy. 

Allopurinol

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